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Saturday, 30 March 2013

Batak Dairi People (English Version)

By: Wendy Hutahaean

Batak Dairi people or sometimes called Batak Dairi Klassen people is a Batak ethnic that live in Kabupaten Tapanuli Tengah and Kabupaten Humbang Hasundutan. Long time ago, foreign people classified this people as Batak Pakpak because they have the same cultures and langauge. However, Batak Dairi people claim that eventhough their culture was influenced by Batak Pakpak cultures but Batak Toba influence also has a strong influnce in their culture. It is because Batak Dairi people live beside Batak Toba people and interact actively with them. In conclusion, the culture of Batak Dairi is the mixture between the culture of Batak Pakpak and Batak Toba that create a new unique culture from those two culture.

Traditional Clothes of Batak Dairi Klasen

A. The Land

There is a misunderstanding claiming from Batak Pakpak people about Batak Dairi (Klassen). They include Batak Dairi as one of their sub ethnics that consist of:

1.    Pakpak Simsim (live in Kabupaten Pakpak Bharat)
2.    Pakpak Keppas (live in Kabupaten Dairi sekitar Sidikalang)
3.    Pakpak Pegagan (live in Kabupaten Dairi sekitar Sumbul)
4.    Pakpak Boang (live in Kabupaten Aceh Singkil dan Kota Subulussalam)
5.    Pakpak Klasen (live in Kabupaten Humbang Hasundutan dan Tapanuli Tengah)

On the other hand, Batak Dairi people reject that claim. They argue that Batak Pakpak people  has only three sub ethnics, Pakpak Simsim, Pakpak Keppas and Pakpak Pegagan. Batak Dairi people claim that Batak Dairi is a separate Batak ethnic that consist of:

1.    Dairi Klasen (live in Kabupaten Humbang Hasundutan dan Tapanuli Tengah)
2.    Dairi Boang (live in Kabupaten Aceh Singkil dan Kota Subulussalam)
3.    Dairi Kahia (live in Kota Subulussalam)

Unfortunately, Batak Boang reject the claim of Batak Dairi and Batak Pakpak. They argue that Batak Boang is a separate Batak ethnic that has different language and culture in Aceh Province. They are Batak Boang, not Batak Pakpak Boang or Batak Dairi Boang.

In conclusion, Batak Dairi refers to a people who live in the northern of Kabupaten Tapanuli Tengah and the western of Kabupaten Humbang Hasundutan. The land of Batak Dairi covers some districts, which are:

1. Kecamatan Parlilitan (Kab. Humbang Hasundutan)
2. Kecamatan Pakkat (Kab. Humbang Hasundutan)
3. Kecamatan Tara Bintang (Kab. Humbang Hasundutan)
4. Kecamatan Manduamas (Kab. Tapanuli Tengah)
5. Kecamatan Sirandorung (Kab. Tapanuli Tengah)

The Land of Batak Dairi

The people of Batak Dairi has a plan to have a separate area called Kabupaten Tanoh Dairi that consist of those five districts (kecamatan) and three new districts from the division of kecamatan Pakkat, Kecamatan Manduamas and Kecamatan Parlilitan that have a huge area. The distance of the capital of Kabupaten Tapanuli Tengah in Pandan and the capital of Kabupaten Humbang Hasundutan in Dolok Sanggul is very far from the land of Batak Dairi people. It makes the development in the land is slow, beside some discriminations happened regarding their cultural background.

B. Marga

Batak Dairi people have "marga" that shows the identity of their original ancestor or family. This familiy name is derived from  father lineage (patrilineal) that will be continued to his male descent continiously. Female descent will follow the family name of her husband after mariage. The example of marga of Batak Dairi people that live in Kabupaten Tapanuli Tengah and Kabupaten Humbang Hasundutan are:

1. Marga Tumangger
2. Marga Tinambunen
3. Marga Kesogihen
4. Marga Meka
5. Marga Maharaja
6. Marga Ceun
7. Marga Mungkur

Traditional Clothes of Batak Dairi Klasen

C. Language

Bahasa Pakpak-Dairi in Dairi/ Klassen dialect is the language spoken by Batak Dairi people. This language actually come from Bahasa Pakpak with strong influence of Bahasa Toba. However, Bahasa Dairi has some differencies in vocabularies and pronounciatons to Bahasa Pakpak. Batak Dairi people also can speak Bahasa Batak Toba because they have a strong interaction with Batak Toba People. They have a small understanding of Bahasa Batak Pasisi because they will use Bahasa Batak Toba or Bahasa Indonesia to interact with Batak Pasisi people who also understand Bahasa Batak Toba.

Traditional Dance of Batak Dairi Klasen

Foreign linguistic expert classify the language of Batak Dairi into Bahasa Batak Pakpak Dairi in Klassen dialect. It is classified as Northern Batak Langauge including Bahasa Batak Karo, Batak Pakpak, Batak Alas, Batak Gayo, Batak Kluet and Batak Singkil. Those language has a lot of similarities in their vocabularies.

D. Religion

The religion of Batak Dairi mostly Christian that introduced by Batak Toba people and western missionarist hundred years ago. A big Christian church for Batak Dairi people is GKPPD (Gereja Kristen Protestan Pakpak Dairi). There are only few people of Malim and Parbegu as the traditional Batak religion. Besides that, there are also few number of  Islam from interracial marriage with Batak Pasisi and other people.

Basically, Batak Dairi People live as rice and gardening farmer. Besides that, they are hunters if they have nothing to do in the rice field or garden. Nowadays, they also work in different types job such as merchandise,  office jobs, in private and public sector. There are a lot of Batak Dairi people who become successful person in foreign country such as having an important position in government and having a successful business.


5.    http://pakpaksim.wordpress.com

 Batak Dairi Dance - Tatak Dembas Simenguda

Batak Dairi Song - Lae Simenggo Parlilitan

Batak Dairi Song - Kekelengenku Tanoh Dairi

Batak Dairi Song - Tirismo

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